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You are developing the code that controls an industrial Espresso machine which will be operated by waiting staff in restaurants.
The machine is rather complicated and has lots of switches and buttons, so in the next iteration instructions will be provided to the operator on a small LCD screen.
A User Story for the Operator-Instructions module is as follows:
"As an operator of the Espresso machine, I would like to know how to steam milk, so I can add steamed milk to the coffee."
The following is a list of risks identified for this story, with assigned probability and impact.
Risk-based testing is a technique that prioritizes testing activities based on the level of risk associated with each feature or requirement. The level of risk is usually calculated by multiplying the probability and impact of each risk. The higher the risk level, the more testing effort should be allocated to mitigate the risk. In this case, the risk level for each option is as follows: A. Risk level = Low x Low = Low B. Risk level = Low x High = Medium C. Risk level = High x High = High D. Risk level = High x Low = Medium Therefore, the highest risk level is C, followed by B and D, and then A. The User Story for the Operator-Instructions module should be tested according to this risk order, starting with C, then B, then D, and finally A. Hence, the answer is B, as it is the second highest risk level and should be tested after C. References: ISTQB Foundation Level Agile Tester Extension Syllabus1, page 16; ISTQB Agile Tester Sample Exam2, question 18.
Which of the following statements would you expect to be the MOST direct advantage of the whole-team approach?
The whole-team approach is a principle of agile testing that involves everyone with different knowledge and skills to ensure project success. The whole-team approach means that the business representatives, testers, and developers work together in every step of the development process, from planning to delivery. The whole-team approach aims to enhance communication and collaboration within the team, leverage the various skill sets of the team members, and make quality everyone’s responsibility12. Therefore, the statement C is the most direct advantage of the whole-team approach, as it captures the essence of the principle and its benefits. The other statements are not directly related to the whole-team approach, or are incorrect. Statement A is about continuous integration, which is a practice of agile development that involves having at least once a day an automated build and test process that detects integration errors early and quickly. Continuous integration is not a direct consequence of the whole-team approach, although it may be facilitated by it13. Statement B is about avoiding requirements misunderstandings, which may be a benefit of the whole-team approach, but not the most direct one. The whole-team approach does not only focus on requirements, but also on design, implementation, testing, and delivery. Moreover, avoiding requirements misunderstandings may also depend on other factors, such as the quality of the user stories, the use of acceptance criteria, and the feedback from the customers and users14. Statement D is incorrect, as it contradicts the whole-team approach. The whole-team approach does not reduce the involvement of business representatives, but rather increases it. Business representatives are an integral part of the whole-team approach, as they provide the vision, the value, and the validation of the product. They collaborate with the testers and developers to define the features, prioritize the backlog, and verify the outcomes12. References: ISTQB Foundation Level Agile Tester Syllabus1, Section 1.2.1, page 9; What is Whole Team Approach in Agile Testing?2, Section What is Whole Team Approach?; Continuous Integration3, Section What is Continuous Integration?; Effective User Stories - 3C’s and INVEST Guide4, Section The 3 C’s (Card, Conversation, Confirmation) of User Stories.
Which of the following is the BEST way for a test team to keep its independence when working in an Agile development environment?
According to the ISTQB Tester Foundation Level Agile Tester syllabus, one of the key principles of agile testing is that testers are integrated into the agile team and work closely with developers and other stakeholders. However, this does not mean that testers lose their independence or objectivity. Testers should still be able to provide an unbiased view of the quality of the software and challenge the assumptions and decisions made by the team. Therefore, option C is the best way for a test team to keep its independence when working in an agile development environment, as it allows testers to be part of the agile team, but also report to a different manager than the developers, who can support their professional development and ensure their independence. Option A is not a good way to keep independence, as it limits the transparency and collaboration between testers and developers, which are essential for agile testing. Option B is also not a good way to keep independence, as it creates a physical and organizational barrier between the test automation team and the agile development team, which can hinder communication and feedback. Option D is also not a good way to keep independence, as it creates an inconsistency and imbalance between the testers who are co-located with the agile development team and those who are not, which can affect the quality and efficiency of the testing process. References: ISTQB Tester Foundation Level Agile Tester syllabus, section 1.2.1, page 91; ISTQB Tester Foundation Level Agile Tester syllabus, section 1.2.2, page 101; ISTQB Tester Foundation Level Agile Tester syllabus, section 2.1.1, page 141; ISTQB Tester Foundation Level Agile Tester syllabus, section 2.2.1, page 161; ISTQB Tester Foundation Level Agile Tester syllabus, section 2.2.2, page 171.
Your agile team is using the Testing Quadrants to ensure that all important test levels and test types are covered in the test plan.
In relation to Quadrant 3 - business facing and product critique, what should be considered for the plan?
Exploratory testing is a type of testing that involves simultaneous learning, test design, and test execution. It is suitable for Quadrant 3 because it is business facing and product critique, meaning that it focuses on the user’s perspective and the quality attributes of the product. Exploratory testing can help discover new risks, requirements, and defects that may not be covered by other test levels and test types. It can also provide feedback on the usability, functionality, and reliability of the product. References: ISTQB® Foundation Level Agile Tester Syllabus1, Section 2.3.2, page 17; ISTQB® Glossary of Testing Terms2, version 4.0, page 23.
You are working in a team preparing a bank loan application. Your task is the preparation of acceptance tests for the following user story:
"IF a customer needs a loan for less than 50,000 Euros and they have made repayments regularly (without any delay) and the customer's monthly income is more than 3000 Euros for the last year, THEN the bank will accept the loan request; in other cases, the bank will not accept the request. A customer assistant is responsible for preparing data for approval but the approval is done by the bank manager."
Which of the following test cases can be treated as acceptance test criteria for the above user story?
1) As a customer assistant I can log in to the system and check the history of the customer account for the last year.
2) As a customer assistant I can log in to the system and check the history of the customer debts and repayments.
3) As a customer assistant I can log in to the system and change my password.
4) As a bank manager I can log in to the system and receive the information of all requests waiting for approval.
5) As a bank manager I can log in to the system and decide whether to approve a loan for a customer.
6) As a bank manager I can log in to the system within 10 seconds.
Acceptance test criteria are the conditions that a user story must satisfy to be accepted by the customer or the stakeholder. They are usually derived from the user story and its acceptance scenarios, and they should cover the functional and non-functional requirements of the user story. Acceptance test criteria should be clear, concise, testable, and agreed upon by the team and the customer or the stakeholder.
In this case, the user story describes the business rule for approving a loan request based on the customer’s income, repayment history, and loan amount. The user story also specifies the roles of the customer assistant and the bank manager in the process. Therefore, the acceptance test criteria should verify that the user story is implemented correctly and that the system behaves as expected for different scenarios and inputs.
The following test cases can be treated as acceptance test criteria for the above user story:
The following test cases cannot be treated as acceptance test criteria for the above user story:
References: ISTQB® Foundation Level Agile Tester Syllabus1, Section 2.3.1, pages 15-16; ISTQB® Glossary of Testing Terms2, version 4.0, pages 2 and 3.